Institutional Animal Care and Use

Introduction Juniata recognizes the ethical responsibility for humane care of animals.  Persons who use vertebrate animals in teaching or research must assume responsibility for general animal welfare and conform to applicable regulations and policies. All animal accommodation facilities and programs shall be operated in accordance with applicable regulations.

The responsibilities of persons engaged in the use of live vertebrate animals include: • be familiar with pertinent rules and regulations; • submit a protocol for review and approval by the IACUC before proceeding with the acquisition, transportation, housing, or use of any vertebrate animals; • carry out projects in a respectful manner that minimizes pain and distress to animals; • maintain appropriate records; and • provide appropriate training to students, staff, and others involved with animal care and/or use. Such training shall include:

1) proper handling and care procedures for animal species used by the facility,

2) precautions necessary to protect the animal handlers from known risks or disease, and

3) reporting methods for deficiencies in animal care or treatment.


Juniata's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) monitors care and use of vertebrate animals and reviews program compliance. 

Committee functions: • carry out annual reviews and evaluation of activities involving animals; • make recommendations to Principal Investigators, Departments, or the Provost regarding any aspect of the animal program, facilities, or personnel training;

review, and, if warranted, investigate complaints received from employees or from the public; and • perform other functions as required by institutional needs and by federal, state, and local authorities.

Inquiries concerning policies should be directed to the IACUC Chair, Kathleen Jones, Assistant Professor of Education 

Principles for Use and Care of Live Vertebrate Animals used in Teaching and Research

The following procedures address the acquisition of animals, their transportation, use and care, efforts to minimize pain and distress, consideration of alternatives to the use of animals, and training of personnel. 

1. The transportation, care, and use of animals should be in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) and other applicable federal laws, guidelines, and policies.

2. Procedures involving animals should be designed and performed with due consideration of their relevance to human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, or the good of society.

3.The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results. Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation, and in vitro biological systems should be considered.

4. Proper use of animals, including the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is imperative.

5. The living conditions of animals should be appropriate for their species and contribute to their health and comfort.

6. Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and experienced for conducting procedures on living animals.

Basic Requirements for Animal Holding Areas

Before animals can be housed on campus, both a protocol and the housing facility must first be approved by the IACUC.

The following requirements apply to areas where animals are housed or used for teaching or research:

1. Contact information (including home phone numbers) for Principal Investigators shall be posted. 

2. Personnel may not eat, drink, use tobacco products, or apply cosmetics in such areas.  Food meant for human consumption may not be stored in animal holding areas. 

3. All aisles, exits, fire extinguishers, eyewashes, and other emergency equipment shall remain unobstructed.

Application Protocol for Care and Treatment of Vertebrate Animals

Federal animal welfare regulations require that the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) review and approve all activities involving the use of vertebrate animals prior to their initiation.  Approved protocols for ongoing and recurrent activities must be reviewed by the IACUC on an annual basis.  Compliance with animal welfare regulations is mandatory and is the responsibility of all individuals involved in teaching or research.  All projects involving vertebrate animals must be submitted for review to Juniata’s IACUC.  To request a review, the IACUC application must be completed and forwarded to the chair via the Moodle website.  The latest application form is available on Moodle and any questions can be directed to the chair.  For projects involving only Level A pain and distress, the process should still be followed, but a designated reviewer will be assigned and turn around for approval will be reasonably quick.  For projects involving Pain and Distress Categories C-E, please complete the form as completely as possible. Realize that some outside reviewers are viewing this and do not know the level and training of the faculty and staff.  The more information provided, the easier it will be to move the process along.  Please note: Category B relates to breeding colonies and the Juniata IACUC has deemed this category as not appropriate for Juniata

Student projects may only be submitted with a faculty/staff sponsor as the principal investigator. The students may be listed as co-PI(s).


Facilities Inspections  

Animal housing areas are subject to inspection by the campus IACUC and veterinarians from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  Inspections are based on the structural elements listed below in addition to records relating to animal care and treatment and the currently approved protocol.  


A. Structural strength B. Water and electric power C. Storage of food and bedding D. Waste disposal E. Washrooms and sinks F. Heating and temperature G. Ventilation H. Lighting I. Interior surfaces J. Drainage K.Shelter from sunlight, rain, snow, and cold weather   Animal Health and Husbandry:

A. Feeding B. Watering C. Sanitation D. Cleaning E. Housekeeping F. Veterinary Care

G. Recordkeeping  


A Vehicles B. Transport enclosures C. Food and water D. Care in transit



Federal Standards

Animal Welfare: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. USDA. Federal Register 54(168): 36112-36163, 31 August 1989.

Animal Welfare: Animals and Animal Products. Federal Register. USDA. Parts 1 to 199,  Revised as of January 1, 1990.

Animal Welfare: Guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits. Federal Register 55(136): 28879-28884, 16 July 1990.

Animal Welfare: Standards (amendments for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs and cats, and non-human primates). Federal Register 56(32):6426-6505, 15 February 1991.

Animal Welfare Information Center tips for alternatives to animal research and testing.

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, 1996.

Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act. Congressional Record, December 17, 1985.

Laboratory Animal Welfare. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts Special Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 14(8). 1985.

Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR). NIH. Revised, 1986.  

Professional Society Guidelines

Field Research Guidelines. A discussion of newly promulgated guidelines on acceptable humane methods of field research and their impact on institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.  Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, April 1988.

Guidelines for the capture, handling, and care of mammals as approved by the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM), 1998.

Guidelines for use of fishes in field research, prepared by the American Fisheries Society (AFS), the merican Institute of Fisheries Research Biologists (AIFRB), and the Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH), 2004.

Guidelines for use of live amphibians and reptiles in field and laboratory research, prepared by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH), The Herpetologist's League (HL), and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR), 2004.

Guidelines to the use of wild birds in research, The Ornothological Council, 1997.

1993 report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 202(2): 230-249.